Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain

Pre-reading

Task 1. Read the questions and choose the suitable answers to them.

1. What city is considered to be the largest one in Great Britain after London?

a) Glasgow;

b) Liverpool;

c) Manchester;

d) Birmingham;

2. What city is historically famous for its dock systems?

a) Edinburgh;

b) Liverpool;

c) Manchester;

d Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain) Birmingham;

3. What British city has a vast area of parklands?

a) Glasgow;

b) Liverpool;

c) Manchester;

d) Birmingham.

4. Do you know what British city has world-famous football clubs?

a) Manchester;

b) Edinburgh;

c) Liverpool;

d) Birmingham.

Task 2. Think about most prominent cities of your country. Compare them with Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain British towns and cities. Decide on the outstanding features of each one while reading.

Task 3. Read the texts. Think of the answers to the questions in Task 1.

The city of Birmingham

Birmingham ( [bɜːmɪŋəm]) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands county of England. Birmingham is the Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain largest of England's core cities, and is often considered to be the second city of the United Kingdom. The City of Birmingham has a population of 1,006,500 (2006 estimate).

The city's reputation was forged as a powerhouse of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, a fact which led to Birmingham being Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain known as "the workshop of the world" or the "city of a thousand trades". Although Birmingham's industrial importance has declined, it has developed into a national commercial centre, being named as the third best place in the United Kingdom to locate a business. In 1998, Birmingham hosted Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain the G8 summit at the International Convention Centre, the birthplace of exhibitions in 1850 and remains a popular location for conventions today.

Birmingham is situated just to the west of the geographical centre of England on the Birmingham Plateau, the area crossed by Britain's main north-south watershed between the basins Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain of the Rivers Severn and Trent. Birmingham is located in the centre of the West Midlands region of England.

The Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery has renowned displays of artwork that include a leading collection of work by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and the world's largest Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain collection of works by Edward Burne-Jones.

The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is both an art gallery and concert hall. It also has one of the world's most detailed and largest coin collections. Cadbury World is a museum showing visitors the stages and steps of chocolate production and the Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain history of chocolate and the company.

There are over 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) of parkland open spaces in Birmingham. The largest of the parks is Sutton Park covering 2,400 acres (970 ha) making it the largest urban nature reserve in Europe. The city centre consists of numerous public squares including Centenary Square, Chamberlain Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain Square and Victoria Square.

Although Birmingham grew to prominence as a manufacturing and engineering centre, its economy today is dominated by the service sector. Tourism is also an increasingly important part of the local economy. Despite the decline of manufacturing in the city several significant industrial plants remain, including Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain Ягуар Cars in Castle Bromwich and Cadbury Trebor Bassett in Bournville.

Birmingham has a number of notable residents from various walks of life. Joseph and Neville Chamberlain are two of the most well-known political figures who have lived in Birmingham. Author J. R. R. Tolkien was brought Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain up in Birmingham with many locations in the city such as Moseley bog, Sarehole Mill and Perrott's Folly supposedly being the inspiration for various scenes in “The Lord of the Rings”. Writer W. H. Auden grew up in the Harborne area of the city. Birmingham has also produced Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain a number of popular bands and musicians. The Streets, UB40, Judas Priest, Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Wizzard and Duran Duran were all popular bands, whilst musicians Jeff Lynne, Ozzy Osbourne, John Lodge, Nick Mason, Roy Wood, Jamelia, and Steve Winwood all were very successful.

Manchester

Manchester ([mæntSIstə]) is a Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain city and metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. Manchester was granted city status in 1853. It has a population of 452,000, and lies at the centre of the wider Greater Manchester Urban Area, which has a population of 2,240,230, the United Kingdom's third largest conurbation. Manchester has the second largest urban zone in Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain the UK and the fourteenth most populated in Europe.

Forming part of the English Core Cities Group, and often described as the "Capital of the North", Manchester today is a centre of the arts, the media, higher education and commerce. In a poll of British business Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain leaders published in 2006, Manchester was regarded as the best place in the UK to locate a business. It is the third most visited city in the United Kingdom by foreign visitors and is now often considered to be the second city of the UK. Manchester was the host of the 2002 Commonwealth Games Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain, and among its other sporting connections are its two Premier League football teams, Manchester United and Manchester City.

Historically, most of the city was a part of Lancashire, with areas south of the River Mersey being in Cheshire. Manchester was the world's first industrialized city and played Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain a central role during the Industrial Revolution. It was the dominant international centre of textile manufacture and cotton spinning. During the 19th century it acquired the nickname Cottonopolis, suggesting it was a metropolis of cotton mills. Manchester City Centre is now on a tentative list of UNESCO Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain World Heritage Sites, mainly due to the network of canals and mills constructed during its 19th-century development.

Edinburgh

Edinburgh ([ɛdɪnb(ə)rə]) is the capital of Scotland, is its second largest city after Glasgow which is situated 45 miles (72 km) to the west, is one of Scotland's 32 local government council Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain areas and is the seventh largest city in the United Kingdom as a whole.

Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of Scotland's Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea. Owing to its rugged setting and vast collection Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain of Medieval and Georgian architecture, including numerous stone tenements, it is often considered one of the most picturesque cities in Europe.

It forms the City of Edinburgh council area; the city council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30-square-mile (78 km²) rural area.

It has been the capital Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain of Scotland since 1437 (replacing Scone) and is the seat of the Scottish Parliament. The city was one of the major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, earning it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city. In the census of 2001, Edinburgh had a total resident population of 448,624.

Edinburgh is well-known for the annual Edinburgh Festival, a collection of official and independent festivals held annually over about four weeks from early August. The Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain number of visitors attracted to Edinburgh for the Festival is roughly equal to the settled population of the city. The most famous of these events are the Edinburgh Fringe (the largest performing arts festival in the world), the Edinburgh International Festival, the Edinburgh Military Tattoo, the Edinburgh International Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain Film Festival, and the Edinburgh International Book Festival.

Other notable events include the Hogmanay street party (31 December), Burns Night (25 January), St. Andrew's Day (November 30), and the Beltane Fire Festival (30 April).

The city is one of Europe's major tourist destinations, attracting around 13 million visitors a year, and Lesson 10. Towns and Cities of Great Britain is the second most visited tourist destination in the United Kingdom, after London.

Vocabulary


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